Sir Charles WHEATSTONE, Sir David BREWSTER et al.

CONSTRAINT : to reproduce the third dimension using two 2-D ϕs.

INVENTION : stereoscopy (1832). Lenticular stereoscope (Brewster, 1849).

WORKS : Billions of stereo cards (1850-1925, appox.). CLAUDET (1852) multiplied the distance between the lenses to be equal to 4 times that between the eyes, giving the effect that the original subjects were small scale models. Other procedures include anaglyphs, patented by Louis DUCOS Du HAURON in 1891, which consist of ϕs printed from 2 negs printed one in red one in blue on top of each other. J. ANDERSON (1891) projected ϕs onto a screen using polarised light. Both these methods require special glasses, and both were later adapted for the cinema.