Francis GALTON, Cesare LOMBROSO, Havelock ELLIS

CONSTRAINT : to code the so-called distinctions of “race” and “social tendencies” encoded in facial features (and anatomical proportions).

INVENTION : eugenic ϕ (Galton's ideas were already fixed in the 1860s, but his first major work is Enquiries into Human Faculty, 1883) ; anthropological ϕ ; and composite portraits (the appropriate French term photo-robot is still employed on the Continent when drawing the “typical traits of class x category of people”).

WORKS : composite portraits (made by superposition of negatives) made by Galton of “Ideal Family Likeness” (1882), “The Jewish Type” (1885), “A Criminal Type” (1897), “Lunatics”, “Westminster Schoolboys”, “H.P. Robinson’s 3 Daughters” etc. (all at University College London). Galton’s constraints were mainly ideological : a desire for social control and “racial improvement”. Beware of apologists.