FLOR & FINDEL, George A. COLE, Giulio GIANNINI, and other Italian booksellers

CONSTRAINT : the client makes his own choice of ϕs of Rome or Florence from among the hundreds of views offered by the Italian bookseller/binder/distributor and has his edition of The Marble Faun (Nathaniel HAWTHORNE, 1860), whose action takes place in Rome, or Romola (George ELIOT, 1863), located in Florence, grangerized so that the ϕ of a building or view is pasted hors text opposite the mention of that locale.

INVENTION : interactive literary-topographical photo-illustration (1860).

WORKS : the practice continued until 1890, when American publishers decided to flood the market with ne varietur ready-illustrated gravure editions. The OUPHOPO library has an authentic 1880 Romola that may be consulted in situ.